Community work and policy in practice


Prof. Ruth Landau

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Academic Profile: 

Ph.D. 1991, RutgersUniv.; Teaching Fellow 1992; Lect. 1993, Senior Lect., 1998; Associate Professor, 2007.


Research Interests:

Beginning of life and end of life issues

Child wellbeing

Third party assisted conception

Loss and bereavement

Ethics in social work


Research ethics


Research Projects:

Single women and their children conceived with the aid of sperm donation.

The ethical aspects of the use of advanced tracking technologies for the analysis of mobility in Alzheimer's Disease and related cognitive disorders - part of a larger study developed jointly with Professor Gail Auslander from the School of Social Work and Social Welfare, Dr. Noam Shoval from the Geography Department, Dr. Heinik from Tel Aviv University and a team of researchers from the University of Heidelberg in Germany.


Recent Publications:

Books edited:

E. Blyth, E. and R. Landau(Eds.) (2004). Third party assisted conception across cultures: social, legal and ethical perspectives. pp.288. Jessica Kingsley Publishers,  London and New York.

R. Landauand G. Shefler, (Eds.). (2007). Research ethics. The Hebrew University Magnes Press, Jerusalem. [Hebrew]

E. Blyth and R. Landau (Eds.). (2009). Faith and fertility: Attitudes towards reproductive practices in different religions from ancient to modern times. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.


Landau, R. (2007). Assisted Human Reproduction: Lessons of the Canadian Experience. Philosophy and Public Policy Quarterly 27 (1/2) 18-13.

Weissenberg, R. Landau, R. and Madgar, I. (2007). Older single mothers assisted by sperm donation and their children. Human Reproduction 22 (10) 2784-2791.

Landau, R. Weissenberg, R. and Madgar. I. (2008). A child of "hers": Older single mothers and their children conceived through IVF with both egg and sperm donation. Fertility & Sterility 90 (3) 576-583.

Shoval, N. Auslander, G.K. Freitag, T. Landau, R. Oswald, F. Seidl, U. Wahl, H.W. Werner, S. and Heinik, J. (2008). The use of advanced tracking technologies for the analysis of mobility in Alzheimer’s disease and related cognitive diseases. BMC Geriatrics 8:7 (26 March 2008).

Landau, R. (2008). Social work research ethics: dual roles and boundary issues. Families in Society 89(4) 571-577.

Landau, R. (2008). Sex selection for social purposes in Israel: Quest for the “perfect child” of a particular sex or centuries old prejudice against women? Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (9) e10.

Shoval – Cohen, N. and Landau, R. (2009). Homebirth as women’s empowerment:

Women’s motives for planned homebirth in Israel. Society and Welfare 29 (1) 39-62 [Hebrew].

Landau, R. Werner, S. Auslander, G. Shoval, N. Heinik, J. (2009). Attitudes of family and professional caregivers towards the use of electronic tracking devices for people with dementia: An exploratory study. British Journal of Social Work 39, 670-692.

Landau, R. Auslander, G. Werner, S. Shoval, N. Heinik, J. (In press). Family and professional caregivers' views of using advanced technology to track people with dementia. Qualitative Health Research.

Oswald, F. Wahl, H.W. Voss, E. Schilling, O. Freytag, T. Auslander, G. Shoval, N. Heinik, J.  & Landau, R. (In press). The use of tracking technologies for the analysis of outdoor mobility in the face of dementia: First steps into a project and some illustrative findings from Germany. Journal of Housing for the Elderly.


Ruth Landau's site at the Research and Development Authority


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Uri Aviram

Prof. Uri Aviram

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Academic Profile:

Ph.D. 1972, Univ.of California, Berkeley; Lect. 1972; Sen. Lect. 1977; Assoc. Prof. 1982; Prof. 1990, Emeritus 2004.

Research Interests:

Mental health and social policy. Mental health services research.  Community care and rehabilitation for persons with psychiatric disabilities. Mental health and social policy reforms. Psychiatry and law. Involuntary commitment of mentally ill persons 

Social work education and career patterns of social workers.

Research Projects:

Mental health policy trends in Israel: factors facilitating and hindering reforms towards community mental health service system.

Severely mentally ill persons in Israel: Scope and nature of the problem.

The mental health Rehabilitation Reform in Israel

Israel mental health (insurance) reform (2015)

The changing role of the social worker in the mental health system.

Abstracts of Current Research:

Mental health policy trends in Israel: Factors facilitating and hindering reforms towards community mental health service system: The objective of this study has been to assess mental health policy in Israel. Using a comparative approach, it evaluates what where the factors that hindered attempts to reform the system towards community mental health services and what might have been the factors that could have facilitated the transformation of the system.

Severely mentally ill persons in Israel- scope and nature of the problem: The objective of this research has been to define the population of chronically mentally ill persons in Israel, assess its major characteristics and estimate the size of this population in the country. Two major criteria have been used for defining the population: hospitalization history and functional disability. In addition, chronic mentally ill persons who had not been hospitalized or received disability pensions were defined and their number in the country was estimated.

Mental health rehabilitation reform in IsraelThe objectives of this study have been to study the outcome of the implementation of the Rehabilitation in the Community of the mentally Disabled Persons Law, enacted in 2000, and its impact on the mental health service system in the country.

Israel mental health (insurance) reform (2015). The aim of the study has been to examine the advantages and risks associated with the transfer of responsibility for mental health services to the health funds  (HMOs)and their integration into the general medical service system. The project analyzes the issues confronting those in charge of its implementation and the regulators, and recommends the appropriate modifications or ways of dealing with the issues and problems that may arise in the course of the reform’s implementation.

The changing role of the social worker in the mental health service system: This study surveys the social workers employed in the mental health service system with respect to their assignments and how they view their current and desired role.

Recent Publications:

Lightman, E. and Aviram, U. (2000). Too much too late: The Advocacy Act in Ontario. Law and Policy22:25-48.

Aviram, U., Admon, Z., Ajzenstadt, M. and Kanter, I.(2000) Change and preservation in mental health legislation in Israel: The legislative process of Israel's new mental health law. Mishpatim: Students' Law Review, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 31:145-191 (Hebrew).

Ajzenstads, M., Aviram, U., Kalian, M. Kanter, A. (2001). Involuntary outpatient commitment in Israel: Treatment or control. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry24, 637-657.

Aviram, U. (2001). Social integration of chronically mentally ill persons: An old problem in a new context. Social Security61, 42-61 (Hebrew).

Shera, W. Aviram, U., Healy, B., Ramon, S. (2002). Mental health system reform. Social Work in Health Care35, 547-575.

AviramU.(2002). The changing role of the social worker in the mental health system. Social Work in Health Care35, 615-632.

Aviram, U. & Rosenne, H. (2002). Estimating the number of chronically mentally ill persons in Israel: Children, the elderly and the total population. Research report submitted to the Israel National Institute for Health Policy and Health Services Research, January, 62pp. (Hebrew).

Aviram, U. & Dehan, N. (2002). Intercultural exchange: An experimental program of the HebrewUniversityof Jerusalemfor education and training ultra-orthodox women for social work. Research report submitted to the Israel Ministry of Science, Culture and Sport. November, 138pp. (Hebrew).

Aviram, U. (Ed.) (2003). Academic social work education in Israel: Past, present and future. Tel Aviv: Cherikover, 186 pp.

Aviram, U. (2003). Social work role in mental health: Does the profession meet the challenge. In U.Aviram (Ed.) (2003).Academic social work education in Israel: Past present and future(pp. 133-158). Tel Aviv: Cherikover, 412 pp. (Hebrew).

Aviram, U. & Korin-Langer, N. (2004). Resilience among families of the mentally disabled. Research report submitted to the Israel National Institute for Health Policy and Health Services Research, June, 42pp. (Hebrew).

Aviram, U., Guy, D., Sykes, I. (2006). A missed opportunity in mental health reform in Israel (1995-1997). Social Security71, 53-83 (Hebrew).

Aviram, U. and Ginath, Y. (Eds.) (2006). Mental health services in Israel: Trends and issues. Tel-Aviv: Cherikover, pp. 412 (Hebrew).

Aviram, U., Gal, J. & Katan, Y. (Eds.) (2007). Social policy development in Israel. Jerusalem: Taub Center for Social Policy Studies in Israel (Hebrew).

Aviram, U. (2007). Stumbling reform of mental health services in Israel: Factors hindering the transformation of the locus of services to the community. Society and Welfare27, 127-155 (Hebrew).

Aviram, U. & Dehan, N. (2007). The reorganization plan of mental health services in Israel, 1972: Factors facilitating and blocking mental health reform toward community mental health services. In U. Aviram, J. Gal & Y. Katan (Eds.)Social policy development in Israel. Jerusalem: Taub Center for the Study of Social Policy in Israel, 193-238 (Hebrew)

Aviram, U. (2007). From the hospital to the community: Issues and challenges in transferring the locus of mental health services from the psychiatric hospitals to community mental health services. In N. Hadas-Lidor & M. Lachman (Eds.) (2007). Recovery and rehabilitation readings in the mental health field: Practice, policy and research. K'far Yona,Israel: Litampp. 195-202 (Hebrew).

Aviram, U. (2010). Promises and pitfalls on the road to a mental health reform in Israel. Israel Journal of Psychiatry3. 171-194.

Dehan, N, & Aviram, U. (2010). Making training in social work accessible for the Israeli ultara-orthodox (Haredi) community- An experimental program of the Hebrew University for training haredi women in social work. Social Security, 82, 113-143 (Hebrew).

Aviram, U. (2010). The Rehabilitation in Community of Persons with Mental Disabilities Law: Intermediate assessment and preparing for the future. Medicine, Psychiatry, 14, 14-23 (Hebrew).

Aviram, U. (2010). Changes in the "back-yard" of the healthcare system in Israel: Promises and perils on the road toward mental health services reform. In Ch. Katz and E. Tzfadia (Eds.) Surveillancing state - abandoningstate:Social policy in Israel, 1985-2008Tel Aviv: Resling. pp. 309-334 (Hebrew).

Aviram, U. (2011).The rehabilitation in the community of persons with mental disabilities law of Israel: Challenge and opportunity in a changing mental health service system. In U. Aviram (Ed.) Rehabilitation and community integration of persons with psychiatric disabilities: The first ten years and beyond. International workshop's report Tel Hashomer, Israel: Israel National Institute for Health Policy Research

Aviram, U., Ginath, Y.& Roe, D. (2012). A Decade to the Rehabilitation in the Community of Persons with Mental Disabilities Law of Israel: Challenges and Opportunities. Psychiatric Services.( 2012)

Aviram, U.(2012). Toward the second decade of implementing the law of the Rehabilitation in the community of persons with Mental Disabilities: Challenges and opportunity for a change in the mental health service system in Israel. Social Security, 90, 155-188 (Hebrew).

Aviram, U. (2013). The law for rehabilitation in the community of persons with mental disabilities: An interim assessment. In D. Ben-David (Ed.) The State of the nation report-Society, economy, and policy in Israel.. Jerusalem: Taub Center for Social Policy Studies (pp.383-407)

Korin-Langer, N., Aviram, U., & Leichtentrit, R. (2014). Resilience among family members of persons with psychiatric disabilities. Society and Welfare, 34, 513-545. (Hebrew).

Aviram, U. & Sagit Azari-Viesel (2015). Mental health reform in Israel: Challenge and opportunity. Policy paper 2015.02. . Taub Center for Social Policy Studies in Israel, Jerusalem 48 pp.  (Hebrew and English).

Aviram, U. (In press).The reform of rehabilitation in the community of persons with psychiatric disabilities: Lessons from the Israeli experience. Community Mental Health Journal


Uri Aviram's page at the Research and Development Authority site

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Jhon Gal

Prof. John Gal

Full Professor
Room 519

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Research Interests:

Social policy and social protection in Israel; Comparative analysis of welfare states; Social work and policy practice.


Research Projects:

Mediterranean Welfare States

Social and Economic Rights in Israel (FP7)

Social Work and Policy Practice (with Prof. Idit Weiss-Gal)

Religion and Social Policy

Policy Transfers in Israeli Social Welfare


Abstracts of Current Research :

Mediterranean Welfare States: This study seeks to identify commonalities and differences between welfare states in the Mediterranean region.  The goal of the study is to ascertain whether the "olive oil welfare states" have specific features that distinguish between them and other welfare states and if these features can contribute to our understanding of social policy formulation and impacts in these nations.

Social and Economic Rights in Israel (FP7):  As part of a greater study on issues of citizenship  in the European Union, this study will seek to examine the social and economic rights of labor migrants in Israel and to examine issues of gender and ethnicity in Israeli society.

Social Work and Policy Practice:  While involvement in social change is a professed goal of social work, relatively little is known on the ways in which social workers actually engage in policy-practice intended to change social policy on different levels.  The goal of this cross-national  project is to investigate the various forms of engagement of social workers in policy practice and to formulate an explanatory  model for this type of practice.

Religion and Social Policy:  Is Israel a Jewish welfare state?  This project will seek to examine the impact of religion and religious belief on the Israeli welfare state in an historical perspective.  It will seek to establish the degree to which religion and nationalism have played a role in the formulation of the Israeli welfare state.

Policy Transfers in Israeli Social Welfare:  The goal of this study is to examine the impact of policy transfers in various fields of social welfare, social policy and social work in Israel.  The study will include an analysis of the role of German social workers on the establishment of social work in Israel and a number of other cases in which policy transfers apparently occurred.



Recent Publications:


Aviram, U., Gal, J. and Katan, Y. (eds.), (2007).  Formulating social policy in Israel: Trends and issues.   Jerusalem: Taub Center for Social Policy Studies in Israel. (Hebrew). 359 pgs.

Gal, J. and Ajzenstadt, M. (eds.) (2009). Access to social justice in Israel.  Jerusalem: Taub Center for Social Policy Studies in Israel. (Hebrew)

Ajzenstadt, M. and Gal, J. [eds.] [2010]. Children, families and gender in Mediterranean welfare states.  Dordrecht: Springer.

Weiss-Gal, I. & Gal, J. (2011).  Policy-practice in social work.  Jerusalem: Magnes. (Hebrew)

Gal, J. and Weiss-Gal, I. (eds.). (2013). Social workers affecting social policy: Policy practice in an international perspective. Bristol: Policy Press.

Articles in Peer Reviewed Journals:

Ben-Arieh, A., Gal J., Nepomnyaschy, L., & Garfinkel, I. (2007). Child and family outcomes in New York and Tel Aviv: Using social indicators in a city level comparative analysis. Social Indicators Research, 80: 223-248.

Gal, J. (2007). The puzzling warfare-welfare nexus. War and Society, 26:99-117.

Weiss, I, & Gal, J. (2007). Social workers' attitudes towards social welfare policy. International Journal of Social Welfare, 16:349-357.

Weiss, I, & Gal, J. (2007).  Poverty in the eyes of the beholder: Social workers compared to other middle class professionals. British Journal of Social Work, 37:893-908.

Koreh, M., Gal, J. & Cohen, R. (2007). A cross-national comparative perspective on social assistance in Israel.  Social Security, 74: 43-69. (Hebrew)

Ajzenstadt, M., Gal, J. & Shapira, A. (2007) Towards evidence-based policy: A systematic review of programs dealing with unemployment. Israeli Sociology, 9(1): 41-70. (Hebrew).

Weiss, I, & Gal, J. (2008).  Social welfare policy: Preferences of Arab and Jewish social workers in Israel. Families in Society, 89: 129-138.

Weiss-Gal, I., & Gal, J. (2008). Social workers and policy practice:  The role of social and professional values. Journal of Social Service Research, 34:4, 15-29.

Avrami, S., Gal, J., & Weiss-Gal, I. (2008).  Knesset committees as a venue for social worker' policy practice activity.  Welfare and Society, 25:1, 103-122.  (Hebrew).

Gal, J. (2008).  Immigration and the categorical welfare state in Israel.  Social Service Review, 82:4, 639-661.

Weiss-Gal, I and Gal, J.  (2009). Realizing rights in social work. Social Service Review, 83:2,267-292.

Gal, J. & Bargal, D. (2009). Labor welfare in Israel. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 24, 185-204 (Also published in P.A. Kurzman & R. Paul Maiden (eds), Union Contributions to Labor Welfare Policy and Practice. London: Routledge).

Malul, M., Gal, J. & Greenstein, M. (2009).  A Universal Basic Income: Income and practice in the Israeli case.  Basic Income Studies, 4:1 article 4.

Katan, Y., Gal, J. & Weiss-Gal, I. (2009). The role of the local in dealing with poverty. Welfare and Society, 29:2-3, 283-310.(Hebrew)

Weiss-Gal, I., Gal, J.   &  Avrami, S. (2009).Policy-practice in action:  Social workers and parliamentary committees. Social Security, 81. (Hebrew)

Gal, J.  & Weiss-Gal, I.  (2011).  Social policy formulation and the role of professionals: The involvement of social workers in parliamentary committees in Israel. Health and Social Care in the Community, 19:2, 158-167. (Also published as Weiss-Gal, I.,  Gal, J. & Avrami, S. (2009).Policy-practice in action:  Social workers and parliamentary committees. Social Security, 81, 39-74. (Hebrew)

Gal, J. (2010).  Is there an extended family of Mediterranean welfare states? Journal of European Social Policy, 20:4, 283-300.

Bar-Nir, D. & Gal, J. (2011). Who has the power? The role of NPOs in local authorities.  Voluntas, 22:1.

Holler, R. & Gal, J. (2011).  Subsidizing early childhood: Israel in a cross-national comparative perspective.  Social Security, 87, 37-64. (Hebrew)

Gal, J. & Ajzenstadt, M. (2013).  The long path from a soup kitchen to a welfare state in Israel.  Journal of Policy History, 25, 240-263.

Gal, J. & Holler, R. (In Press). The development of social policy research in Israel.  Israel Affairs.

Weiss-Gal, I. & Gal, J. (In Press).  Social workers as policy actors.  Journal of Social Policy.

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Dr. Itay Greenspan

Dr. Itay Greenspan

Senior Lecturer
Room 533

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A nonprofit scholar with background in the fields of geography and environmental studies. My research focuses on three bodies of knowledge: 1) the social bases of organized environmentalism, 2) identity work in nonprofit and philanthropic studies, and 3) the role of volunteering and voluntary associations in the welfare state, with special focus on immigrants.


1) Individual and institutional bases of organized environmentalism. In this track, I seek to expand theoretical and empirical understanding of the individual- and institutional-bases of actors in environmental organizations, and the environmental behaviors of individuals in society. I developed and used the concepts of environmental philanthropy and environmental volunteering to depict active support to environmental causes.

Recent projects:

Intergenerational transmission of environmental behavior. This study examines how environmental behaviors and attitudes are transmitted across generations within the family. Our goal is to measure the relationship between cultural and economic influences in three countries (Israel, USA, South Korea) and the intergenerational transmission of environmental behavior within the family.

The role of youth movements in the development of environmental activism. This study is more historic interpretive in nature, and examines how the American Zionist youth movement Young Judaea has influenced values, beliefs, funding networks and attitudes of its alumni who migrated to Israel to take leadership roles in the development of the Israeli environmental movement.


2) Identity work in nonprofit and philanthropic organizations. The alignment of personal identity with organizational mission may serve a critical role in effectively addressing the challenge of citizen participation in civil society. In this track, I aim to better understand the role of identity in nonprofit and philanthropic organizations, including how philanthropic identities are aligned with other identities.

Recent projects:

Participatory philanthropy. Exploration of the motivations and the construction of multiple identities of participants in the charity sports events, depicting the blurring boundaries between donors and fundraisers in nonprofit organizations.

Volunteering by people with disability: we evaluate the role, impact, and identity construction of youth with disabilities who engage in volunteer work and service learning initiatives in Israel.


3) The role of volunteering and nonprofits in the welfare of immigrants and migrant workers. Various organizational mechanisms and services can facilitate improved social, cultural and economic integration of immigrants into their host societies. I study how volunteering, community-based organizations, and social enterprises facilitate the welfare and integration of immigrants into the social fabric of host societies.

Recent projects:

Immigrant volunteering in Germany: In light of the significant refugee and immigrant influx into Europe, we continue our exploration of immigrant volunteering, and study patterns and motivations of immigrant volunteering in Germany.

Voluntary associations of Filipino migrant workers in Israel: We survey community-based organizations of the Filipino migrant community in Israel to understand their provision of social and welfare services to its members, and the advocacy efforts to change policies related to their working conditions. We develop theoretical typology of migrant worker associations.



List of recent publications:

Articles in refereed journals (last 5 years)

McDougle, L. M., Greenspan, I., & Handy, F. (2011). Generation green:  Understanding the motivations and mechanisms influencing young adults’ environmental volunteering. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 16(4), 325-341.

Sinha, J., Greenspan, I., & Handy, F. (2011). Volunteering and civic participation among immigrant members of ethnic congregations: Complementary not competitive. Journal of Civil Society, 7(1), 23-40.

Greenspan, I., Sinha, J., & Handy, F. (2011). The road to volunteering is paved with good intentions: Is volunteering in congregations a response to altruism, social influence or instrumental benefits? International Journal of Volunteer Administration, 29(2), 1-17.

Greenspan, I., Handy, F., & Katz-Gerro, T. (2012). Environmental philanthropy: Is it similar to other types of environmental behavior? Organization & Environment, 25(2), 111-130.

Tal, A., Leon-Zchout, S., Greenspan, I., Oshri, L., & Akov, S. (2013). Israel’s environmental movement: Strategic challenges. Environmental Politics, 22(5), 779-791.

Greenspan, I. (2014). How can Bourdieu’s theory of capital benefit the understanding of advocacy NGOs? Theoretical framework and empirical illustration. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 43, 99-120.

Katz-Gerro, T., Greenspan, I., Handy, F., Lee, H.-Y., & Frey, A. (2015). Environmental philanthropy and environmental behavior in five countries:
Is there convergence among youth? Voluntas, 26(4), 1485-1509.

McDougle, L. M., Handy, F., Katz-Gerro, T., Greenspan, I., & Lee, H-Y. (2015). Factors predicting proclivity and intensity to volunteer for the environment in the US and South Korea. Journal of Environmental Planning & Management, 58(5), 837-854.

Greenspan I. (2015). From state orientation to civil society and partnership orientations: An outlook on development and change in the Israeli environmental movement. Bitahon Sotziali, 98, 157-193 (in Hebrew).

Walk, M., Greenspan, I., Crossley, H. & Handy, F. (2015). Skills-training programs in supported social enterprises: A social return on investment analysis. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 26(2), 129-144.

Walk, M., Greenspan, I., Crossley, H. & Handy, F. (2015). Mind the gap: Expectations versus experiences of clients utilizing job-training services in a social enterprise. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics86(2), 221-244.

Katz-Gerro, T., Greenspan, I., Handy, F. & Lee, H.-Y. (forthcoming). Personal value types and environmental behaviors in four countries: Biospheric, universalism, benevolence, and conformity revisited. Environmental Values.

Ramarajan, L., Berger, I. & Greenspan, I. (forthcoming). Multiple identity configurations: The benefits of focused enhancement for prosocial behavior. Organization Science


Work in Progress / under review

“Participatory philanthropy: A nonprofit-centered conceptual framework of charity sports events.” w/ Berger, I.

“Do social work students have the skills to perform their role as client intermediaries?” w/ Zanbar, L., Yitzhaky, H.

“The environmental movement on the move: Diversification and institutionalization processes in the Israeli environmental movement.”

“Partnership ambiguity: Conceptualizing cross-sector partnerships across borders.” w/ Halevy, D.

“Green social workers: Environmental concerns, attitudes, and behaviors of social work students in Israel.” w/ McDougle, L. & Handy, F.

“Client volunteering in organizations serving clients with psychiatric disabilities.” w/ Meinhard, A.


Chapters in Book Collections

Katz, H. & Greenspan, I. (2015). Giving in Israel: From old religious traditions to an emerging culture of philanthropy. In: P. Wiepking & F. Handy (eds.), The Palgrave handbook of global philanthropy (pp. 316-337). Palgrave Macmillan.

** book is winner of the 2016 Virginia A. Hodgkinson Research Book Prize by the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action**

Walk, M., Greenspan, I. Crossley, H. & Handy, F. (2014) Canadian immigrants and their access to services: A case study of a social purpose enterprise. In: J. Quarter, S. Ryan & A. Chan (eds.). Social purpose enterprises: Case studies for social change (pp. 162-187). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Meinhard, A.G., Handy, F., & Greenspan, I. (2010). Corporate participation in the social economy: Employer-supported volunteering programs. In J. Quarter, L. Mook, & S. Ryan (Eds.), Researching the social economy: A Canadian perspective (pp. 245-266). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Greenspan, I. (2005). Palestinian and Israeli environmental narratives: Reflections on the 2002 Johannesburg Earth Summit. In S. Schoenfeld (Ed.), Palestinian and Israeli environmental narratives (pp. 75-92). Proceedings of a conference held in association with the Middle East Environmental Futures (MEEF) Project. Toronto, ON: York University, Centre for International and Security Studies.


Other Manuscripts

Cohen-Blankshtain, G., Greenspan, I., Naali-Yosef, H. & Geva, Y. (2015). Public participation in environmental decision-making: International perspectives. Tel Aviv: The Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel (SPNI) (Hebrew)

מעורבות הציבור בקידום נושאים סביבתיים: סקירה ותובנות מפרספקטיבה בינלאומית. קישור

Greenspan, I. (2014). Environmental philanthropy: The relationship between philanthropic foundations and environmental NGOs in Israel. Jerusalem: Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Center for the Study of Philanthropy in Israel [in Heb.]

פילנתרופיה סביבתית: יחסי הגומלין בין קרנות פילנתרופיות לארגוני הסביבה בישראל. קישור

Tal. A., Leon-Zchout, S., Frankel-Oshri, L., Greenspan, I., & Akov, S. (2011). Israel’s environmental movement: Trends, needs, and potential. Submitted to the JMG Foundation. Ben Gurion University. Beer Sheva, Israel (Heb. & Eng).

התנועה הסביבתית בישראל: מגמות, צרכים ופוטנציאל. קישור

Greenspan, I. (2005). Review of the book The Israeli third sector: Between welfare state and civil society, by B. Gidron, M. Bar, & H. Katz. Voluntas, 16(3), 312-314.


Ph.D. Dissertation: Israeli Environmental NGOs and Philanthropic Foundations: Donor Dependence, Organizational Characteristics, and Selection Mechanism. (University of Pennsylvania.)



"החרדים יודעים לעשות מחאה" הארץ. 4.3.2014.

Editor (with Prof. Stuart Schoenfeld) of the news blog: Environment and Climate in the Middle East


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Prof. Hillel Schmid

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Academic Profile: 

 Ph.D. 1985, Hebrew University; Lect. 1986; Sen. Lect. 1990; Associate Prof. 1995; Prof. 2005.

Dean, School of Social Work and Social Welfare, 2003-2006.

Director, The center for the studies of philanthropy in Israel, 2006-2014.

Centreid - L. Jacque Menard Chair in Social Work for the study of Volunteer and Nonprofit Organizations.

Member, The executive committee of the Hebrew University. 2007-2010.

Member, Board of Directors, Association for Research on Non-profit Organizations and Voluntary Action - ARNOVA. (USA)- 2010-2014.

Member, Editorial Board, "Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly".

Member, Editorial Board, "Human Service Organizations: Management Leadership and Governance".

Member, Editorial Board, "Society and Welfare" (Hevra V'revacha)- 2003-2014.

Director, The Haruv Institute, founded by the Schusterman Foundation, 2008-2012.

Member, Advisory Board of the journal Nonprofit Management and Leadership.


Research Interests:

Strategic management and processes of adaptation of nonprofit human service organizations to changing environments, organizational behavior, executive behavior, organization- environment relationship, the growth of the private sector delivering social services. The relationships between structural properties and service effectiveness in voluntary-nonprofit organizations, the role of nonprofit organizations in the providing of social services, political roles of nonprofit human services, leadership and change in nonprofit human service organizations, philanthropy and philanthropists in Israel and in the Jewish world, the impact of philanthropists on the organizational and structural behavior of nonprofits organizations. 

Intersectoral partnerships between nonprofits, the government and the business sector.

Intergenerational philanthropy.


Research Projects:

 Relationships between Government and for-profit and nonprofit organizations delivering human and social services.

Relationships between nonprofit organizations providing personal and social services and the for- profit sector.

The political activity of nonprofit organizations delivering human and social services.

Leadership styles and leadership change in voluntary nonprofit organizations.

New patterns of philanthropy in Israel.

The impact of the Israeli philanthropy on the Israeli nonprofit organizations.  

Elite Philanthropy in Israel.

The impact of funding sources on the ideology, goals and the functioning of nonprofit human service organizations. 

Deinstitutionalization of services to children at risk.

Child abuse and neglect.

Lessons from the privatization of social services - implications to policy.

Advocacy roles of nonprofit human service organizations.

Advocacy Organizations, mission, goals, strategies and administrative procedures.

 Giving in Israel – scope and mechanisms of contributions.

Intersectoral partnerships and collaboration –nonprofits,the government and the business sector.

The influence of funding sources on the strategic and structural behavior of nonprofit human service organizations.

Intergenerational leadership.

Recent Publications:


Borowski,A. & Schmid,H. (2000). Israel's long-term care insurance law after a decade of implementation. Journal of Aging and Social Policy,12(1), 49-71.

Schmid,H. & Borowski,A. (2000). Selected issues in the delivery of home care services to the elderly after a decade of implementing Israel's long-term care insurance law. Social Security, 57, 59-81 (Hebrew). Also published in Social Security (special English edition) (2004), 87-114.

Schmid, H. (2001). Evaluating the impact of legal change on nonprofit and for-profit organizations: The case of the Israeli long-term care insurance law. Public Management Review 3(2), 167-189. Also published in Hebrew, Social Security (2001), 60, 90-112. 

Schmid,H. & Bar-Nir, D. (2001). The relationship between organizational properties and service effectiveness in residential boarding schools. Children and Youth Services Review 23(3), 243-271.  

Schmid,H. (2001). The welfare services market. Meser La'inyan, 5, 8-11 (Hebrew).

Schmid,H. (2001). Nonprofit organizations and for-profit organizations providing home care services to the Israeli frail elderly: A comparative analysis. International Journal of Public Administration, 24(11), 1223-1265.

Schmid,H. (2002).The relationship between organizational properties and service effectiveness in three types of nonprofit human services. Public Personnel Management, 31(3), 377-395.

Schmid,H. (2003). Rethinking the policy of contracting out social services to nongovernmental organizations: Lessons and dilemmas. Public Management Review, 5(3), 307-323. 

Schmid,H., Bargal, D.& Hochstadt, M. (2003). Organizational, structural and administrative dimensions of voluntary nonprofit organizations delivering services to the elderly. Meser La'inyan, 13, 10-13. 

Schmid,H. & Nirel, R. (2004). Ownership and age in nonprofit and for-profit home care organizations: What makes the difference? Administration in Social Work, 28(3/4), 183-200.

Schmid,H. (2004) Organization-environment relationships: Theory for management practice in human service organizations. Administration in Social Work, 28(1), 97-113.

Schmid,H. (2004). The role of nonprofit human service organizations in providing social services: A prefatory essay.Administration in Social Work, 28(3/4), 1-21.

Schmid, H. (2004). The Israeli long-term care insurance law: selected issues in providing home care services to the frail elderly. Health and Social Care in the Community, 13 (3), 191-200.

Schmid, H., & Salman, H. (2005). Citizens perception of the neighborhood council in East Jerusalem, Journal of Community Practice, 13 (2), 61-75.    

Korazim Y., Leibovitz, S., &  Schmid, H. (2005). The Privatization of foster care services: Lesson learned after four years of implementation. Social Security,  70 (December), 56-57.

Bar, M., & Schmid, H. (2005). A prefatory essay, Social Security, 70 (December), 5-12.

Shemer O., & Schmid, H. (2006). Toward a redefinition of community partnership: A Three-dimensional approach.Hevra Verevaha. 26(3), 327-354.

Schmid, H., (2006) Leadership styles and leadership change in human and community service organizations. In R.A.Cnaan & C. Milofsky (Eds.), Values, Passion and Trust in Nonprofit Organizations, 395-409.

Schmid, H., (2006) Leadership styles and leadership change in human and community service organizations.Nonprofit menagement & Leadership. Vol. 27(2), 179-194.

Shemer, O. & Schmid, H. (2007). Toward a new definiton of partnership: A three dimensional approach. Journal of Rural cooperation, 35 (2), 123-139.

Schmid, H. (2007). Childern and youth at risk in Israel: Findings and reconnemdations to improve their well being.Children and Youth Services Review, 29(8), 1114-1128.

Schmid, H. & Hasenfeld, Y. (2008). Contracting out social services. Encyclopedia of Social Work.

Schmid, H., Bar, M., & Nirel, R. (2008). Advocacy roles of nonprofit human service organizations: Implications for policy. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. 37(4), 581-602.

Schmid, H. & Blit-Cohen, E. (2009). University and social involement at the neighbourhood level: implications for social work education. Journal of Teaching in Social Work. 29, 1-20.

Schmid, H. (2009). Agency-environment relations: Understanding external and natural environments. In R. Patti (Ed.) The Handbook of Human Services Management, 411-433.

Schmid, H. (2009). Changes in the political economic and social environment and their impact on the organizational identity of the community center. In: Lavi, Z. (ed), To belong. Jerusalem: The Israeli Association of Community Centers, 32-68.  

Schmid, H. (2009). The contingencies of nonprofit leadership. In J.Kane, H.Patapon and P.T. Hart (Eds.), Dispersed Leadership in Democracies. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 193-210.

Schmid, H. (2010). Organizational change in human service organizations: Theories, boundaries, strategies and implementation. In Y. Hasenfeld (Ed.) Human services as complex organizations. (2nd. Edition), 455-479.

Schmid, H. (2010). Leadership styles and leadership change in human and community organizations. In Y. Hasenfeld (Ed.). Human services organizations as complex organizations. (2nd edition), 193-206.

Schmid, H., Dolev, T. & Szabo-Lael, R. (2010). Community based programs for children at risk: the case of budget flexibility in departments of social services in Israel. Children and Youth Services Review, 32, 178-184.

Schmid, H. (2010). The implications of the privatization on the social and civic missions of nonprofit organization that provide social services. Parliament, 64.

Blit-Cohen, E. & Schmid, H. (2010). University and social involvement in a Jerusalem neighborhood: Learning for the experience. Society and Welfare, 30(1): 131-151.

Schmid, H. & Rudich-Cohen, A. (2010). Philanthropy in Israel. Social Security, 83, 5-18.

Schmid, H. & Rudich- Cohen, A. (2010). Elite Philanthropy in Israel: characteristics, motives and Patterns of contribution. Social Security, 83, 225-262. 

Schmid, H. and Benbenishty, R. (2011).Public attitudes towards child maltreatment in Israel. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 1181-1188.

Benbenishty, R. & Schmid, H. (2013). Public attitudes toward the identification and reporting of alleged maltreatment cases among social groups in Israel. Children and Youth Services Review, 35, 332-339.

Schmid, H. & Rudich-Cohen, A. (2012). Elite philanthropy in Israel: Characteristics, motives and patterns of contribution. Society, 49 (2), 175-181.

Schmid, H. (2012). Nonprofit organizations: Between identity blurring and adaption to changing environments. Administration in Social Work.Online:30 May 2012,DOI:10.1080/03643107.2012.676611.

Almog-Bar, M. & Schmid, H. (2014). Advocacy activities in nonprofit human service organizations: A critical review. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 43, 11-35.

Schmid, H. & Sharon, N. (2012). Social entrepreneurship in nonprofit organizations and its impact on their vision and values, organizational culture, and administrative processes. Social Security, 88, 31-63.

Schmid, H. & Almog-Bar, M. (2013). Intersectoral Collaborations: Thesis and research findings. Jerusalem: The Center for the Study of Philanthropy in Israel, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Feldman, G., Strier, R. & Schmid, H. (2015). The performance of advocacy organizations: The redistribution of symbolic capital. British Journal of Social Work, 1-17.

Schmid, H. & Almog-Bar, M. (2016). Correlates of cross-sector partnerships in the human services: Implications for policy and practice. Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership, Governance. (Forthcoming).

Schmid, H., & Shaul Bar-Nissim, H. (2016). The Changing relation between the government and philanthropy in Israel: Implications for policy. Society. (Forthcoming).

Schmid, H., & Shaul Bar-Nissim, H. (2016). Can two walk together except they be agreed? The relationship between the government and philanthropy in Israel- Current situation and thought for the future. Social Society. (Forthcoming).

Schmid, H., & Shaul Bar-Nissim, H. (2016). The globalization of philanthropy: Trends and Channels of giving. In: Harrow,J.,Jung, T., & S. Phillips (Eds.),The Routledge Copanion to Philanthropy.

Hillel Schmid's site at the Research and Development Authority

דין וחשבון הוועדה הציבורית לבדיקת מצבם של ילדים ובני נוער בסיכון ומצוקה. מוגש לראש ממשלת ישראל ולשר הרווחה, שבט תשס"ו, מרס 2006



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Dr. Orna Shemer

Lecturer of the Practice
In charge of academic status
Room 534

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Research interests:

Community work, practice of partnerships and participation, cultural competence, dialogue and community mediation, rural communities, cooperative organizations and communities, learning from success, practice wisdom, people who live in poverty and inclusion.

Current research projects:

·      Changes in the Kibbutzim: An interdisciplinary research about the changes in the Kibbutzim (with Prof. Eliezer Ben-Rafael) - Coordinating an extensive research, in partnership with researchers from various disciplines, that examines  the extensive and dramatic economic, ideological, social, cultural, physical (and more) changes taking places in dozens of Kibbutzim in recent year.

·      The new cooperatives in Israel: A study about the recent wave of cooperatives that emerged over the last decade, especially after the protest calling for social justice. The study looks at the motives for the establishment of the cooperatives. Further more, studying  their economic, social and organizational patterns of action, as an expression of communal and activist practices.

·      Community dialogue: Study of the successful dialogue between leaders of various cultural groups in a multicultural city, that work together in a long-term partnership trying to overcome social problems in their city.

Examples of Recent Publications:


·         Shemer, O. (Editor). (2013). Community Mediation and Dialogue Centers – Social Innovation through community Initiatives. Tel Aviv: Ministry of Social Affairs and Social services and JDC Israel. (Hebrew)

·         Shemer, O., Rosenfeld, J.M., Dahan, O. & Daniel-Hellwing, A. (Editors). (2016). What the hell did we do? Success Stories from the support-centers for students with learning disabilities. Tel Aviv: "Mofet" institution & Myers-JDC-Brookdale Institute. (Hebrew)



·         Shemer, O. & Schmid, H. (2007). "Toward a new definition of community partnership: a three dimensional approach". Journal of rural cooperation, 35 (2). 123-140. (English)

·         Shahar, E. & Shemer, O. (2012). Learning with the community: Using the narrative approach and mutual learning through dialogue in community work. Hevra u-Revaha (Society and Welfare) 32 (4). 553-577 . (Hebrew).

Chapters in books: 

·         Shemer, O. (2016). "Inter-cultural mediation: critical view on the development of a cultural-sensitive role". In: B. Bashir., G. Ben Porat, & Y. Yona, (Eds.). Multi-culturalism and policy. 226-263. Jerusalem: Van leer Jerusalem institute. (peer reviewed) (Hebrew)


Entries in Encyclopedias:

·         Shemer, O. (2014). "Community dialogue" In: Coghlan, D. & Brydon-Miller, M. (Eds.). The Sage Encyclopedia of Action Research. (Vol 1). Los Angles. 143-146. (English)


Published scientific reports and technical papers:

·         Shemer, O. (2013). Perceptions of Community among Members from the Intentional Communities. Shahaf foundation & RIKMA Movement. (Hebrew)

·         Shemer, O. (2016). Research report: The growing-up of the multi-cultural leadership incubator in Sderot – young civil-society in the periphery. Hanns Seidel Foundation (Hebrew, English)



·         Shemer, O. and partners from the welfare department in Dimona. (2016). Wraparound in the community. Ministry of Welfare. (Hebrew).

·         Agmon-Snir, H. & Shemer, O. (2016). Cultural competence in community work. Ministry of Welfare. (Hebrew).


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